NYT onthult verbijsterende cijfers over Holocaust: ca. 42.500 getto’s en kampen geregistreerd

getto5Een groep Joodse vrouwen wachten aan de ingang van het Getto van Brody in Oost-Galicië, 1942. Het bord met ‘Getto’ is geschreven in drie talen: Duits, Oekraïens en Pools. Galicië is een gebied in Centraal Europa dat een bewogen geschiedenis achter de rug heeft en dat zich tegenwoordig uitstrekt aan beide zijden van de grens tussen Polen en de Oekraïne (zie kaartje rechts). Foto afkomstig uit het archief van Eugenia Hochberg Lanceter in het United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM)

Zoals ook nu weer blijkt uit het volgend artikel van Eric Lichtblau in The New York Times van vrijdag 1 maart 2013, is 68 jaar na de bevrijding door het Rode Leger van KZ Auschwitz-Birkenau op 27 januari 1945, de geschiedenis van de Holocaust of Shoah nog steeds niet geschreven. En zolang de volledige waarheid niet aan het licht is gekomen, zijn wij verplicht om er te blijven over schrijven en spreken uit respect voor de miljoenen slachtoffers van het nationaal-socialisme, waarbij vooral de Joodse gemeenschap de zwaarste klappen kreeg en ei-zo-na compleet uitgeroeid werd in Europa.

Dertien jaar geleden begonnen onderzoekers van het United States Holocaust Memorial Museum aan de grimmige taak om alle getto’s, slavenarbeid sites, concentratiekampen en moordfabrieken te documenteren die de nazi’s in heel Europa hadden opgericht. Wat zij tot dusverre hebben gevonden hebben zelfs de geleerden geschokt die erg diep in de geschiedenis van de Holocaust zijn gedoken.

galiciaDe onderzoekers hebben zowat 42.500 getto’s en kampen over heel Europa in kaart gebracht die de door Duitsland gecontroleerde gebieden overspanden van Frankrijk tot in Rusland en in Duitsland zelf, tijdens het barbaarse regime van Adolf Hitler vanaf 1933 tot 1945.

Het cijfer is zo verbijsterend dat zelfs doorwinterde geleerden van de Holocaust zich ervan moesten vergewissen dat zij het wel correct hadden gehoord toen de hoofdonderzoekers hun bevindingen mededeelden op een academisch forum op het einde van januari ’13 in Duits Historisch Instituut in Washington.

“De aantallen zijn zo veel hoger dan wij aanvankelijk dachten,” zei Hartmut Berghoff, de directeur van het instituut, in een interview nadat de nieuwe gegevens werden vrijgegeven. “Wij wisten hoe verschrikkelijk het leven was in de kampen en de getto’s,” zei hij, “maar de aantallen zijn ongelooflijk.”

De gedocumenteerde kampen omvatten niet enkel “moord centra” maar ook duizenden gedwongen arbeidskampen, waar de gevangenen oorlogsmateriaal vervaardigden; krijgsgevangenen kampen; plaatsen die eufemistisch “zorg centra” werden genoemd waar zwangere vrouwen tot abortus werden gedwongen of waar hun babies onmiddellijk na de geboorte werden gedood; tot aan bordelen waar vrouwen tot seks werden gedwongen met het Duitse militaire personeel.

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De tekst loopt hier verder in het Engels

Auschwitz and a handful of other concentration camps have come to symbolize the Nazi killing machine in the public consciousness. Likewise, the Nazi system for imprisoning Jewish families in hometown ghettos has become associated with a single site — the Warsaw Ghetto, famous for the 1943 uprising. But these sites, infamous though they are, represent only a minuscule fraction of the entire German network, the new research makes painfully clear.

The maps the researchers have created to identify the camps and ghettos turn wide sections of wartime Europe into black clusters of death, torture and slavery — centered in Germany and Poland, but reaching in all directions.

The lead editors on the project, Geoffrey Megargee and Martin Dean, estimate that 15 million to 20 million people died or were imprisoned in the sites that they have identified as part of a multivolume encyclopedia. (The Holocaust museum has published the first two, with five more planned by 2025.)

The existence of many individual camps and ghettos was previously known only on a fragmented, region-by-region basis. But the researchers, using data from some 400 contributors, have been documenting the entire scale for the first time, studying where they were located, how they were run, and what their purpose was.

The brutal experience of Henry Greenbaum, an 84-year-old Holocaust survivor who lives outside Washington, typifies the wide range of Nazi sites. When Mr. Greenbaum, a volunteer at the Holocaust museum, tells visitors today about his wartime odyssey, listeners inevitably focus on his confinement of months at Auschwitz, the most notorious of all the camps.

But the images of the other camps where the Nazis imprisoned him are ingrained in his memory as deeply as the concentration camp number — A188991 — tattooed on his left forearm. In an interview, he ticked off the locations in rapid fire, the details still vivid. First came the Starachowice ghetto in his hometown in Poland, where the Germans herded his family and other local Jews in 1940, when he was just 12.

Next came a slave labor camp with six-foot-high fences outside the town, where he and a sister were moved while the rest of the family was sent to die at Treblinka. After his regular work shift at a factory, the Germans would force him and other prisoners to dig trenches that were used for dumping the bodies of victims. He was sent to Auschwitz, then removed to work at a chemical manufacturing plant in Poland known as Buna Monowitz, where he and some 50 other prisoners who had been held at the main camp at Auschwitz were taken to manufacture rubber and synthetic oil. And last was another slave labor camp at Flossenbürg, near the Czech border, where food was so scarce that the weight on his 5-foot-8-inch frame fell away to less than 100 pounds.

By the age of 17, Mr. Greenbaum had been enslaved in five camps in five years, and was on his way to a sixth, when American soldiers freed him in 1945. “Nobody even knows about these places,” Mr. Greenbaum said. “Everything should be documented. That’s very important. We try to tell the youngsters so that they know, and they’ll remember.”

The research could have legal implications as well by helping a small number of survivors document their continuing claims over unpaid insurance policies, looted property, seized land and other financial matters. “HOW many claims have been rejected because the victims were in a camp that we didn’t even know about?” asked Sam Dubbin, a Florida lawyer who represents a group of survivors who are seeking to bring claims against European insurance companies.

Dr. Megargee, the lead researcher, said the project was changing the understanding among Holocaust scholars of how the camps and ghettos evolved.

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As early as 1933, at the start of Hitler’s reign, the Third Reich established about 110 camps specifically designed to imprison some 10,000 political opponents and others, the researchers found. As Germany invaded and began occupying European neighbors, the use of camps and ghettos was expanded to confine and sometimes kill not only Jews but also homosexuals, Gypsies, Poles, Russians and many other ethnic groups in Eastern Europe. The camps and ghettos varied enormously in their mission, organization and size, depending on the Nazis’ needs, the researchers have found.

The biggest site identified is the infamous Warsaw Ghetto, which held about 500,000 people at its height. But as few as a dozen prisoners worked at one of the smallest camps, the München-Schwabing site in Germany. Small groups of prisoners were sent there from the Dachau concentration camp under armed guard. They were reportedly whipped and ordered to do manual labor at the home of a fervent Nazi patron known as “Sister Pia,” cleaning her house, tending her garden and even building children’s toys for her.

When the research began in 2000, Dr. Megargee said he expected to find perhaps 7,000 Nazi camps and ghettos, based on postwar estimates. But the numbers kept climbing — first to 11,500, then 20,000, then 30,000, and now 42,500.

The numbers astound: 30,000 slave labor camps; 1,150 Jewish ghettos; 980 concentration camps; 1,000 prisoner-of-war camps; 500 brothels filled with sex slaves; and thousands of other camps used for euthanizing the elderly and infirm, performing forced abortions, “Germanizing” prisoners or transporting victims to killing centers.

In Berlin alone, researchers have documented some 3,000 camps and so-called Jew houses, while Hamburg held 1,300 sites. Dr. Dean, a co-researcher, said the findings left no doubt in his mind that many German citizens, despite the frequent claims of ignorance after the war, must have known about the widespread existence of the Nazi camps at the time.

“You literally could not go anywhere in Germany without running into forced labor camps, P.O.W. camps, concentration camps,” he said. “They were everywhere.”

door Eric Lichtblau

Eric Lichtblau is a reporter for The New York Times in Washington and a visiting fellow at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.


Bronnen:

  1. The New York Times: The Holocaust Just Got More Shocking door Eric Lichtblau [lezen]
  2. Joods Actueel: Onderzoekers brengen WOII nazi-kampen in kaart en komen tot schokkende conclusies [lezen]
  3. De Dagelijkse Standaard: ‘Holocaust nog schokkender dan gedacht’ door Michael van der Galien [lezen]

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