Een interessant boekje dat ik onlangs op de kop kon tikken bij De Slegte was dat van Prager & Telushkin, oorspronkelijk uit 1975 en later bijgewerkt tot deze herziene uitgave uit 1981 getiteld als ‘Negen vragen die mensen stellen over het Jodendom‘. Vooral – en dat was ook dé reden waarom ik het boekje aankocht – was op bladzijde 120 t/m 130 Vraag 6: “Is er een verschil tussen anti-Zionisme en antisemitisme?” Sinds ik enkele jaren terug begonnen ben met me enkel en alleen toe te leggen op de intensieve studie van de geschiedenis van de Israëlisch-Arabische oorlogen van vroeger tot nu, heb ik nuchter moeten constateren dat tussen anti-zionisme en antisemitisme geen enkel verschil bestaat. Beiden lopen naadloos in elkaar over en zijn in de meeste Arabische landen en in de moslimwereld tot in Iran eenvoudigweg synoniemen van elkaar. Enkel westerlingen trachten die twee begrippen uit elkaar te houden, voornamelijk als gevolg van een schuldgevoel jegens de Joden omtrent de Shoah tijdens WOII.
Maar of het nu gaat om Israëliërs, Joden of Israëlieten – noem het Bijbelse volk van Israël zoals je wilt – het draait vroeg of laat onvermijdelijk uit op Jodenhaat gevolgd door Jodenvervolging en moord. Dat is geen bepaald ‘gevoelen’ maar geconcludeerd uit de nuchtere historische feiten. Zelfs de Joden die zich hartstochtelijk scharen achter progressieven en/of Palestijnse arabieren en zich tegen Israël keren, moeten zich realiseren dat ook voor hen aan het einde van de weg, het schavot wacht. Hitler vermoordde ook elke Jood, of dat nu om een hoge pief ging, een geassimileerde Duitse generaal of bankier, dan wel om een eenvoudige Joodse bakkersgast of marktkramer, allemaal gingen ze voor de bijl in KZ Auschwitz-Birkenau. Als er wordt vervolgd en gemoord zijn alle Joden gelijk.
Dominee Martin Luther King gaf al in de jaren 1960 van de 20ste eeuw een eenvoudig maar duidelijk antwoord op deze 6de vraag van Prager & Telushki: “Wanneer mensen kritiek geven uiten op Zionisten, bedoelen ze de Joden.” (“When people criticize Zionists, they mean Jews.”) Inderdaad, zo is dat. Ik, Brabosh en auteur van deze blog, ik ben geen Jood. Ik ben een Belg uit Vlaanderen, een atheïst en een Zionist (met een hoofdletter!). Ik sta onvoorwaardelijk achter het bestaansrecht van Israël en achter eender welke mensen die op gelijk welk ogenblik in de geschiedenis de Joodse staat leiden en besturen. Links, rechts, averechts, het kan me allemaal geen donder schelen. Israël eerst!
Dacht Martin Luther King aan mensen zoals ik toen hij zei “When people criticize Zionists, they mean Jews“? Welnee, natuurlijk niet. Anti-Zionisten liggen geen seconde wakker van mensen zoals ik, want ik ben dan wel een zionist maar ik ben geen Jood en enkel en alleen in die laatste hoedanigheid zijn anti-Zionisten [lees: antisemieten] geïnteresseerd. Hun doelwit is de Jood, en of dat dat nu een communist, een kapitalist of een armoezaaier is, een fascist, een zionist of een anti-Zionist is, dat speelt helemaal geen rol. In het Midden-Oosten maken ze dat verschil ook niet en het is toch tenslotte dààr dat de oorlog wordt uitgevochten. Alhoewel ik de laatste jaren tot mijn grootste zorg moet vast stellen dat er nogal wat migrante moslim arabieren het conflict naar hun nieuwe land van vestiging wensen te importeren. Maar die zijn nog niet klaar met ons, wij, de Zionisten!
Question 6: Is there a difference between anti Zionism en antisemitism?
door Dennis Prager & Joseph Telushkin
Lees snel verder–>
“Theoretically one can be tolerant of Roman Catholics and work day and night for the destruction o f the papacy. Theoretically, one can be tolerant of Methodists and Baptists and forbid them… public dissemination of their literature… In the concrete and specific, however, such distinctions are without a difference. No one can be an enemy of Zionism and be a friend of the Jewish people today.” (Franklin H. Litell, The Crucifixion of the Jews)
“Wanneer mensen kritiek geven uiten op Zionisten, bedoelen ze de Joden.” (“When people criticize Zionists, they mean Jews.” – Martin Luther King)
As long as one supports Israel’s right to exist as a Jewish state, even when severely critical of certain Israeli policies, one is not an anti-Zionist. An anti-Zionist today is one who denies Israel’s right to exist as a Jewish state.(1) The question is, then, can one support efforts to destroy the Jewish state and not be considered an enemy of the Jews, an antisemite? (2)
Anti-Zionists answer yes, arguing that whereas antisemites are motivated by opposition to all Jews, anti-Zionists are motivated by opposition only to the Jewish state and to the Jews as a people or a nation. (3)
(1) We recognize that one can be theoretically anti-Zionist and still support Israel’s existence as a Jewish state, since its destruction could not be morally defended. Such views are extremely rare and academic, and not discussed in this chapter. We are concerned with anti-Zionism as it is practiced and understood in almost every instance: opposition to Israel’s existence as a Jewish state.
(2) We use “antisemite” and “enemy of the Jews” interchangeably since the term “antisemite” is only a polite substitute for anti-Jew. The term “anti-Semitism” was coined in 1879 by Wilhelm Marr, an antisemitic spokes man in Germany, to describe the then growing political movement against German Jews. The term is entirely a misnomer, however, since it has nothing to do with Semites. This also explains why we write antisemite as one word. We have adopted the approach of James Parkes, the distinguished Christian historian of antisemitism, to so write antisemitism, as not to convey the misunderstanding that there is a Semitic entity which antisemitism opposes.
(3) The Jews have always been both a nation and a religion (see footnote on page 42); but in order to legitimize their denial of the Jews’ right to Israel, anti-Zionists deny that the Jews are a nation or a people, and assert that they are members only of a religion. A typical such denial of Jewish peoplehood is this statement from the charter of the Palestine Liberation Organization: “Judaism, in its character as a religion, is not a nationality with an independent existence. Likewise the Jews are not one people . . .” (Article 20 of the Palestine National Covenant).
According to anti-Zionists, one who deliberately aims to harm or destroy the Jewish state (an anti-Zionist) cannot be likened to one who aims to deliberately harm the Jews (an antisemite ) . Or, to restate the anti-Zionists’ argument, an avowed enemy of the Jews’ homeland and of every Jew who identifies with it is not an enemy of the Jews.
For some anti-Zionists these differences between anti-Zionism and antisemitism may have some significance. For Jews, however, these differences are entirely academic. Though some anti-Zionists may sincerely believe that they are not motivated by hatred of Jews, the consequences of anti-Zionism and antisemitism for the Jewish people are the same.
Anti-Zionism differs from other expressions of antisemitism only in which aspect of Jewish identity it chooses to hate. Those medieval Christians who burned Jews alive also claimed (and perhaps sincerely) that they did not oppose all Jews, only those Jews who insisted on retaining their Jewish religious beliefs and practices. Anti-Zionists make the identical claim, differing only in which Jewish belief motivates them to oppose Jews. While supporting or actually engaging in the killing of Jews in Israel and attempts to destroy the Jewish state, anti-Zionists, like those medieval antisemites, deny despising all Jews; they only despise those Jews who insist upon retaining their Jewish national beliefs and homeland. And just as there were a few medieval Jews who gave up loyalty to the Jewish religion and were spared the hatred of Christian antisemites, so today there are a few Jews who do not identify with Jewish nationhood and are spared the hatred of anti-Zionists.
In fact, Adolph Hitler and the Nazis were the only antisemites in history to admit to hating all Jews, no matter what their religious or national beliefs. All other antisemites, like the anti-Zionists, have claimed to hate only those Jews who held certain Jewish beliefs. Unless the Nazis are to be considered the only antisemites in history, anti-Zionists are as antisemitic as every other type of antisemite. Only their motivation may differ. Like all other antisemites, anti-Zionists are at war with nearly every Jew (nearly every Jew has some sense of Jewish national identity and supports Israel’s right to exist).
Anti-zionisme en antisemitisme in theorie
Can someone deny that Italians are a nation, work to destroy Italy, and all the while claim that he is not an enemy of the Italian people because he does not hate all Italians? The question is obviously absurd. If you deny Italian nationhood and any Italian rights to their homeland, and seek to destroy Italy, no matter how sincerely you may claim to love some Italians, you are an enemy of the Italian people. The same holds true for those who deny Jewish nationhood and the Jews’ right to their state, and who advocate the destruction of Israel. Such people are enemies of the Jewish people; and the term for their attitudes, even when espoused by people who sincerely like some Jews, is antisemitism.
An anti-Zionist would likely respond that the analogy between Italy and Israel is invalid, because “Italian” has meaning as a nationality, while “Jewish” has meaning only as a religion. And since Judaism is “only a religion” and Zionism is a national movement, one can oppose Zionism without being an enemy of the Jews or Judaism.
In addition to reasons already presented, this argument is false on four scores. First, it makes the extraordinary assumption that non-Jews can tell Jews what it means to be Jewish. As the prominent Jewish theologian Rabbi Emmanuel Rackman wrote: “I am a Jew and a Zionist. For me the two commitments are one. Furthermore, I hold this to be the position of historic Judaism. . . . I must firmly ask [non-Jews] to respect my religious convictions as I see them and not as they see them.” (uit The American Zionist, maart 1971)
Throughout their long history, Jews have held that Jewish nationhood is, along with God and Torah, the basis of Judaism. In the words of an ancient Jewish text, “God, Torah and Israel are one.” The Jews’ self-definition as a nation with a homeland in Israel is not merely some new political belief of contemporary Jews, but the essence of Judaism since before the Bible itself was written.
[The first of God’s instructions to Abraham, the first Jew, is that he go and settle in the land now known as Israel (Genesis 12:1). Muslims, the leading anti-Zionists today, accept the Jewish Bible, but maintain that the Jews distort the Jewish Bible, since Abraham was really a Muslim.]
Second, the contention that anti-Zionists are not enemies of the Jews, despite their advocacy of policies which would lead to the mass murder of Jews, is, to put it as generously as possible, disingenuous. If anti-Zionism succeeded in its goal of destroying Israel, nearly all of Israel’s three million Jews plus an untold number of non-Israeli Jews would die in their effort to maintain Israel. Both the Israelis and their Arab enemies know this. The Arabs, some Western-oriented propaganda notwithstanding, have repeatedly called for the destruction of the Jews in Israel during any future war with Israel. The Israelis for their part would fight to the last, both to keep Israel alive and because they have reason to believe that death is a preferable fate to capture by the Arabs. In the words of the Israeli Leftist writer Amos Kenan: “Shukairy [the head of the Palestine Liberation Organization before Yasir Arafat] used to say that the Jews should be driven into the sea. After the 1967 defeat, it became apparent that a slogan of this sort was not good public relations for the Arab cause. So today, only the Zionists are to be thrown into the sea. The only trouble is that when the Arabs get through pushing all the Zionists into the sea, there won’t be a Jew left in Israel. For not a single Jew in Israel will agree to less than political and national sovereignty.” [uit “New Left Go Home,” van Mordecai S. Chertoff, in The New Left and the Jews (New York: Putnam, 1971), blz. 311.] Given, then, that if anti-Zionism realized its goal, another Jewish holocaust would take place, attempts to draw distinctions between anti-Zionism and antisemitism strike most Jews as demagogic.
Third, it was possible before the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 to oppose the Zionist movement and not be an enemy of the Jews, just as prior to 1776 one could have opposed American statehood without being an enemy of Americans. Once the United States was established, however, anyone advocating its destruction would obviously be considered an enemy of Americans. So, too, once Israel was established, anyone advocating its destruction is considered an enemy of the Jews.
Fourth, anti-Zionists would be hard put to find any affirmatively identifying Jew who would not view them as mortal enemies. Studies and opinion polls have shown that 99 percent of American Jewry identifies with the right of Jews to the Jewish state. [zie Norman Podhoretz, “Now, Instant Zionism,” uit de New York Times Magazine, 3 februari 1974, blz. 39.]
For religious Jews, as we have seen, Israel and Jewish nationhood are part of their religious creed. An anti-Zionist is therefore an enemy of religious Jews. As for secular Jews, anti-Zionists oppose the one aspect of Judaism which they passionately affirm-Israel. The only Jews who could see anti-Zionism as anything other than an expression of antisemitism affirm neither Jewish nationhood nor the Jewish religion.
[There is a fringe group of several hundred ultra-Orthodox Jews in Israel, known as the neturei karta, who are well-known enemies of Israel and of Zionism. At first, one might think that their positions are consistent with anti-Zionists. But this is not so. These Jews believe that the Jews are a nation (Am Yisrael) and that there should be a Jewish state. They insist, however, that this state should not come into existence until the Messiah personally establishes it, and since this was not the case with Israel (and furthermore, since the leaders of the state do not abide by the religious practices of the reeturei karta), they do not recognize the current state of Israel. The neturei karta are as representative of Jews as the snake handling sects are of Christians.]
Anti-Zionisme en antisemitisme in de praktijk
Though they constantly deny being antisemites, in their writings and speeches anti-Zionists rarely draw distinctions between Zionists and Jews.
[If one is to take anti-Zionists at their word, a handful of neo-Nazis are the only antisemites left in the world. Obviously what has occurred among the Jews’ enemies is merely a shift of rhetoric. The Holocaust has rendered such terms as antisemite unusable, at least for the time being. Those who prior to Hitler would have called themselves, and been called by others, antisemites now utilize the term anti-Zionist. To the Jews, an antisemite by any other name smells the same.]
In order to hide their antisemitism, enemies of the Jews nearly always use the term “Zionist” when they mean Jew. This substitution often becomes ludicrous. On October 21, 1973, Yakov Malik, the Soviet Ambassador to the United Nations declared: “The Zionists have come forward with the theory of the Chosen People, an absurd ideology.” This statement is a perfect example of antisemitism masquerading as anti-Zionism. An attack on Jewish chosenness is not ,an attack on Zionism: Chosenness plays no role in Zionism. It is a basic doctrine of Judaism. Malik’s attack was consistent with Soviet, Arab, and Leftist opponents of the Jews who disguise their attacks on Jews and Judaism as attacks on Zionism. In the Museum of Religion and Atheism in Leningrad, an exhibit about Zionism and Israel designates the following as “anti-Soviet Zionist” material: Jewish prayer shawls, te fillin (phylacteries), and Passover haggadahs,* all religious items used by Jews for thousands of years [geciteerd in William Korey, “Updating the Protocols,” Midstream, mei 1970, blz. 17.]
A similar and characteristic use of anti-Zionism to disguise antisemitism was made in the Black Panther, the newspaper of the late radical black organization. Discussing the trials of Panther leader Huey Newton and of the “Chicago Eight,” the article concluded: “It was a Zionist judge, judge Freedman, who sentenced Huey P. Newton to fifteen years in jail. It was a Zionist judge, Judge Hoffman, who allowed the other Zionists to go free but has kept Bobby Scale in jail… The other Zionists in the Conspiracy 8 trial were willing and did sacrifice Bobby Seale.. Once again we condemn Zionism as a racist doctrine.” [25 augustus 1970] The men denounced as Zionists include Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman, and William Kuntsler, people who could best be described as non-Jewish Jews. The Black Panther attacked them because they are Jews (by birth), not because they are Zionists.
[While the Left’s antisemitism generally masquerades under the guise of anti-Zionism, the anti-Jewish writings of the Fascist Right usually acknowledge their animosity toward the Jews, seeing Zionism correctly as a manifestation of Judaism. Gerald L. K. Smith, the major disseminator of antisemitic writings in the United States over the past four decades, wrote in the Gerald L. K. Smith Newsletter of April 19, 1973: “The enemies of Christ are determined to capture the world-not through the United Nations, not through what people call a World Government, but through the manipulating, financial and military power of World Zionism.”]
In the Arab world, “anti-Zionists” have adopted the calumnies of antisemitism and now spread them under the guise of anti-Zionism. The late president of Egypt and the leading political figure in the Arab world, Gamal Abdel Nasser, repeatedly cited the Protocols of the Elders of Zion (a forgery purporting to be a document of the international Jewish conspiracy to take over the world, and a mainstay of Nazi propaganda) to document his charge that three hundred Zionists rule the world. King Faisal, leader of Saudi Arabia until his death in 1975, repeatedly publicized his accusation that Jews kill non-Jews and drink their blood. The Arab writer Saluk Dasuki published America-A Zionist Colony, a book which was widely distributed both in the Arab world and in the Soviet Union. In a rare display of frankness, Dasuki noted that “Jews, whether they have preserved their religion, or whether they have adopted other religions, are known in the United States under the collective name Zionists.” Basing themselves on statistics in Dasuki’s work, the Soviets published an article in the journal of the Young Communist League which asserted that in the United States, 70 percent of the lawyers, 69 percent of the physicists, 43 percent of the industrialists, and 80 percent of the owners of publishing houses were Zionists. [citaat in William Korey, “Updating the Protocols,” Midstream, mei 1976, blz. 6.]
Moral leaders of various faiths have repeatedly warned that anti-Zionism is antisemitism in practice. The late Dr. Martin Luther King said, upon hearing a black student at Harvard launch a tirade against Zionists: “When people criticize Zionists, they mean Jews. You’re talking antisemitism.” [zie Seymour Martin Lipset, “The Socialism of Fools-The Left, the Jews and Israel” in Mordecai Chertoff, The New Left and the Jews, blz. 104.] In a similar vein, the President of the United Church of Christ, Dr. Robert Moss, commented on the anti-Zionist resolution passed by the United Nations General Assembly in 1975: “We should not be deceived by the use of the term Zionism. The sponsors of this resolution mean by it Jews and Judaism as well as the state of Israel.” The UN delegate from Costa Rica noted that the resolution was an invitation to genocide against the Jewish people. [zie Sidney Liskofsky, “U.N. Resolution on Zionism,” in American Jewish Yearbook 1977 (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society), blz. 109.]
To deny that anti-Zionism is antisemitic on the grounds that some anti-Zionists do not hate all Jews is analogous to denying the antiblack racism of the Ku Klux Klan on the grounds that some KKK members do not hate all blacks.
Those who believe that they can deny Jewish nationhood and advocate the elimination of the Jewish state without being antisemitic, must do so out of a willful ignorance about Jews, Judaism, Jewish history, the Middle East, and the Arab and Muslim worlds. When anti-Zionists deny any Jewish rights to the land of Israel, do they do so unaware that in the past three thousand years the only independent states in the area known as Palestine or Israel have been Jewish, and that no independent Arab state ever existed in that location? When anti-Zionists work to destroy the Jewish state, do they do so unaware of how the Jews suffered during the two thousand years when their state was destroyed? Are Christian anti-Zionists unaware of the Crusades, the pogroms, and the other forms of relentless persecution of Jews under Christendom? Are Muslim anti-Zionists unaware of the second-class status, degradation, and violent attacks that accompanied the Jews in the Arab world up through the twentieth century? Are Leftist anti-Zionists unaware of the systematic destruction of Jewish life throughout the Communist world? Are anti-Zionists unaware that most of the six million Jews murdered in the Holocaust might have been saved had there been a Jewish state?
In supporting the destruction of Israel, are anti-Zionists unaware that millions of Jews in Israel would be killed in such a war of destruction?
Whether the destruction of the Jewish national movement and the Jewish state, a holocaust of the three million Jews of Israel, and the subsequent abandonment of world Jewry to the good will of the world with no refuge of their own are carried out in the name of anti-Zionism or antisemitism is quite irrelevant to Jews. That today the people who want to do these things call themselves anti-Zionists instead of antisemites is an interesting historical fact. There may be some differences in which aspects of Jewish life anti-Zionists and antisemites hate, but these differences are of interest only to historians. Anti-Zionism and antisemitism both would cause Jews to be homeless, suffer, and die. And that is all Jews need to know about them.
Bron: The Nine Questions people ask about Judaism door Dennis Prager & Joseph Telushkin; bladzijde 120 t/m 130 Question 6; Uitgeverij Schuster & Schuster, New York; 1981, 216 blz.; ISBN 0671425935; vertaald door Brabosh.com; – Anti-Zionisme is antisemitisme van 8 mei 2010; Anti-Zionisten en Israëlbashers = klassieke Jodenhaat in een moderne verpakking van 23 december 2009; Israëlbashers hanteren een dubbele standaard als het over schendingen van rechten gaat van 9 december 2009; Wanneer is anti-Zionisme internationaal gemeengoed geworden? van 25 september 2009; Durban II Genève 2009 epiloog: Anti-Zionisme, chique ziekte van 26 april 2009